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Protons(red), Neutrons(black) electrons(blue).
The inner-most(first) shell is full as it can hold only two electrons. The second shell can hold eight but has only four. The tendency of such atoms is to share electrons with other atoms and form covalent bonds. Since carbon needs four electrons it will typically form four single bonds, or two double bonds with other atoms depending on their electron configuration.
Atomic mass or Mass number is roughly = number of protons+number of neutrons. For this atom it is 12.
Atomic number= number of protons.